Here are selected January 2011 rulings of the Supreme Court of the Philippines on commercial law:
Corporate officers; definition. “‘Corporate officers’ in the context of Presidential Decree No. 902-A are those officers of the corporation who are given that character by the Corporation Code or by the corporation’s by-laws. There are three specific officers whom a corporation must have under Section 25 of the Corporation Code. These are the president, secretary and the treasurer. The number of officers is not limited to these three. A corporation may have such other officers as may be provided for by its by-laws like, but not limited to, the vice-president, cashier, auditor or general manager. The number of corporate officers is thus limited by law and by the corporation’s by-laws.
It has been consistently held that “[a]n ‘office’ is created by the charter of the corporation and the officer is elected (or appointed) by the directors or stockholders.” Clearly here, respondents failed to prove that petitioner was appointed by the board of directors. Thus, we cannot subscribe to their claim that petitioner is a corporate officer. Having said this, we find that there is no intra-corporate relationship between the parties insofar as petitioner’s complaint for illegal dismissal is concerned and that same does not satisfy the relationship test. Renato Real vs. Sangu Philippines, Inc. et al., G.R. No. 168757, January 19, 2011.